The pace of change in Leesburg and Loudoun County accelerated after the end of the Second World War. With the end of war-time restrictions on fuel and rubber, and new with government programs like the GI bill, which enabled returning veterans to pursue higher education opportunities previously out of reach, a life dominated by the cycles of agriculture was challenged.

Leesburg experienced growing pains as the population grew and Leesburg became increasingly integrated into the greater Washington area. Nonetheless, many residents advocated measures to retain Leesburg's historic character. The civil rights era further changed the town, although racial integration in Leesburg was not marked by the violence seen in some southern towns: high schools began desegregating in 1962 and were fully integrated by 1968.

Leesburg was also home to General George C. Marshall, Secretary of State and architect of the plan to rebuild devastated Europe after the Second World War, and Arthur Godfrey, a national radio and television personality who was also a Leesburg aviator and philanthropist.

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